Some Jews advised emigration to America as a means of escape; and a society was founded at Pest, with a branch at Pressburg, for that purpose. The Mongol invasion in 1241 seemed to conform to expectation, as Jewish imagination expected the happy Messianic period to be ushered in by the war of Gog and Magog. The widow of Louis II, the queen regent Maria, favored the enemies of the Jews. When the Parliament dissolved in 1861, the emancipation of the Jews was deferred to the coronation of Franz Joseph. [29], Jews entered the national guard as early as March 1848; although they were excluded from certain cities, they reentered as soon as the danger to the country seemed greater than the hatred of the citizens. Himmler ordered Eichmann to leave Budapest.

Between June 25 and 29, there were 10 trains, then an additional 18 trains on July 59. Following the German occupation of Hungary on March 19, 1944, Jews from the provinces were deported to the Auschwitz concentration camp; between May and July that year, 437,000 Jews were sent there from Hungary, most of them gassed on arrival. At the end of World War II, only 140,000 Jews remained in Hungary, down from 750,000 in 1941. This decree had been promulgated in the Christian countries of Europe since the 5th century, and St. Ladislaus merely introduced it into Hungary. Of the immigrants 38.35 per cent came from Moravia, 11.05 per cent from Poland, and 3.07 per cent from Bohemia. From the second part of the 13th century, the general religious tolerance decreased and Hungary's policies became similar to the treatment of the Jewish population in Western Europe. (2006). [23], Meanwhile, the king endeavored to free the mining-towns from the Jews a work which Leopold I had already begun in 1693. Survivors Registry Document File EE2922 contains a variety of lists, most including dates of death: From Reel 28: Two lists of Hungarian Jews in Buchenwald. [117], Critics have asserted that the sums represent nothing more than a symbolic gesture. When the Diet of 18471848 (in which, according to ancient law, only the nobles and those having the rights of nobles might take part) was dissolved (April 11), and the new Parliament at which under the new laws the delegates elected by the commons also appeared was convened at Pest (July 2, 1848), the Jews hopefully looked forward to the deliberations of the new body. Survivors Registry Collection: Document File EE2922. On 1 June 1582 the municipal council decreed that no one should harbor Jews, or even transact business with them. I think part of the problem of the Holocaust was that potential victims couldn't believe the information. [20] But the community of Judaizing Szekler Sabbatarians, which had existed in Transylvania since 1588, was persecuted and driven underground in 1638. In Pest the Israelite State Teachers' Seminary was founded in 1859, the principals of which have included Abraham Lederer, Heinrich Deutsch, and Jzsef Bnczi.[34]. The government, desiring to enforce the edict of the last Diet, decreed soon afterward that Jews should be removed from the office of collector. In sharp contrast to this attitude was that of Baron Jzsef Etvs, who published in 1840 in the Budapesti Szemle, the most prominent Hungarian review, a strong appeal for the emancipation of the Jews. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. [26], After the death of Joseph II the royal free cities showed a very hostile attitude toward the Jews. [18], As the lord of Bsing (Pezinok) was in debt to the Jews, a blood accusation was brought against these inconvenient creditors in 1529. [30], The Hungarian Jews served their country not only with the sword, but also with funds.

After the Hungarian revolution, this process was stopped until 1867. Budapest, the South and West had a Neolog majority (related to modern US Conservative and Reform Judaism- the kipah and organ were both used in religious worship in the synagogues). After the Ausgleich, many Jews changed their family names from German to Hungarian. The Moravian Jews, who had suffered by the heavy emigration, then brought complaint; and Maria Theresa ordered that all Jewish and Christian subjects that had emigrated after 1740 should be extradited, while those who had emigrated before that date were to be released from their Moravian allegiance. In 2008, a team of archeologists discovered a 3rd-century AD amulet in the form of a gold scroll with the words of the Jewish prayer Shema' Yisrael inscribed on it in Fltorony (now Halbturn, Burgenland, in Austria). [citation needed], During the war, Jews were called up to serve in unarmed "labour service" (munkaszolglat) units which were used to repair bombed railroads, build airports or to clean up minefields at the front barehanded. Nor did the Jews of Pest escape, while those at Vgjhely (Nov Mesto nad Vhom) especially suffered from the brutality of the mob. Details from the report were broadcast by the BBC on June 15, and printed in The New York Times on June 20. The bitter feeling against them was in part augmented by the fact that the baptized Emerich Szerencss, the deputy treasurer, embezzled the public funds.[18]. [25], Before the end of the period of five years the delegates of the Jews again met the commission at Pressburg (Bratislava) and offered to increase the amount of their tax to 25,000 gulden a year if the queen would promise that it should remain at that sum for the next ten years. From Reel 169: Transport from Budapest to Buchenwald. Its agitation against Jews was not successful (see Tiszaeszlr affair). When the grand vizier, Ibrahim Pasha, preceding Sultan Suleiman I, arrived with his army at Buda, the representatives of the Jews who had remained in the city appeared garbed in mourning before him, and, begging for grace, handed him the keys of the deserted and unprotected castle in token of submission. [110] People of Jewish origin dominated the post-war Communist regime until 195253 when many were removed in a series of purges. [citation needed], The net loss for Judaism due to official conversions was 26,652 people between 1919 and 1938, while 4,288 people converted into the faith, 30,940 left it. Based on the Jewish school fund, the government organized model schools at Storaljajhely, Temesvr (Timioara), Pcs, and Pest. A few left Hungary, seeking a new home across the sea, but the majority remained. Survivors Registry Volunteer Ted Smith then compiled excerpted printouts of Hungarian name lists from this collection as indicated in the collection's available finding aid. Stephen Roth writes, "Hungarian Jews were opposed to Zionism because they hoped that somehow they could achieve equality with other Hungarian citizens, not just in law but in fact, and that they could be integrated into the country as Hungarian Israelites. :[37], In 1926, the districts I, II, III of Buda were Jewish 8%,11%,10% respectively. A 1942 memo for the BBC Hungarian Service, written by Carlile Macartney, a British Foreign Office adviser on Hungary, said: "We shouldn't mention the Jews at all." The Holocaust Survivors and Victims Database will be unavailable from 6 PM ET on Friday, February 15th, 2019 to 12 PM ET on Saturday, February 16th, 2019 due to scheduled maintenance. [citation needed] On March 23, the government of Dme Sztjay was installed. While some of the Jews of Hungary were deported to Anatolia, others, who had fled at the approach of the sultan, sought refuge beyond the frontier or in the free royal towns of western Hungary. But among all these broadcasts, there were crucial things that were not being said, things that might have warned thousands of Hungarian Jews of the horrors to come in the event of a German occupation. [66], Jews represented one-fourth of all university students and 43% percent at Budapest Technological University. Nagyszombat (Trnava) addressed a further memorandum to the estates (December 4) in which it demanded that the Diet should protect the city's privileges. "In late July there was a lull in the deportations. He was hardly buried, when the people fell upon them, confiscated their property, refused to pay debts owing to them, and persecuted them generally. The royal free towns, except the mining-towns, were opened to the Jews, who were allowed to settle at leisure throughout the country. They and anyone who could not prove legal residency since 1850, about 20,000 people, were deported to southern Poland and either abandoned there or were handed over to the Germans between July 15 and August 12, 1941. Jews accounted for 54% of commercial business owners, 85% of financial institution directors and owners in banking, and 62% of all employees in commerce,[43] 20% of all general grammar school students, and 37% of all commercial scientific grammar school students, 31.9% of all engineering students, and 34.1% of all students in human faculties of the universities. Districts V (31%), VI (28%), VII (36%), VIII (22%), IX (13%) had large Jewish populations, while district X had 6%. [29], At the sessions of the Diet subsequent to that of 18391840, as well as in various cities, a decided antipathyat times active and at times merely passivetoward the Jews became manifest. Beginning in 1783, he ordered Jews to either choose or be given German family names by local committees. Struthof (Concentration camp) --Registers. With the rise of Hungarian nationalism, the first wave of Magyarization of family names occurred between 1840 and 1849. The Jewish communities of the entire country were ordered to share in raising the sum, on the grounds that most of the Jews of Hungary had supported the Revolution. Number of Names or Other Entries-- Approx. ", "Himmler did in fact issue a definite order against it which reached Budapest on the night between August 24 and August 25, as Veesenmayer reported to Ribbentrop on the latter day. Five days later, on April 14, Endre, Baky, and Adolf Eichmann, the SS officer in charge of organising the deportation of Hungarian Jews to the German Reich, decided to deport all the Jews of Hungary. The queen relieved the Jews from the tax of toleration in Upper Hungary only. [citation needed]. [18], Some years later, when Hungary was in financial distress, the Jews were recalled.

In broad terms, Jews whose ancestors had come from Moravia in the 18th century tended to become Neolog at the split in 1869; those whose ancestors were from Galicia identified as Orthodox. Written sources prove that Jewish communities lived in the medieval Kingdom of Hungary and it is even assumed that several sections of the heterogeneous Hungarian tribes practiced Judaism. [photocopy]. During the four days' interregnum following the German occupation, the Ministry of the Interior was put in the hands of Lszl Endre and Lszl Baky, right-wing politicians well known for their hostility to Jews. The number of people deported over the Carpathians was 19,426 according to a document found in 2012 . [14], According to Raphael Patai, stone inscriptions referring to Jews were found in Brigetio (now Szny), Solva (Esztergom), Aquincum (Budapest), Intercisa (Dunajvros), Triccinae (Srvr), Dombovr, Sikls, Sopianae (Pcs) and Savaria (Szombathely). In Sofia, there existed four Jewish communities in the second half of the 16th century: Romaniote, Ashkenazi, Sephardi and "Ungarus". the databases listed below. In the following years the whole of Hungary now came under the rule of the House of Habsburg.

[13], At the Synod of Buda (1279), held in the reign of King Ladislaus IV of Hungary (12721290), it was decreed, in the presence of the papal ambassador Philip of Fermo, that every Jew appearing in public should wear on the left side of his upper garment a piece of red cloth; that any Christian transacting business with a Jew not so marked, or living in a house or on land together with any Jew, should be refused admittance to the Church services; and that a Christian entrusting any office to a Jew should be excommunicated. In some cases, applications for residency permits were allowed to pile up without action by Hungarian officials until after the deportations had been carried out. If you would like to add a resource to this list, please submit the information to the. The government did not recommend Hirsch, but decided that in case the Jews should refuse to pay, it might be advisable to appoint a primate to adjust the matter. There were 109 trains during these 33 days through June 16. Andrew III (12911301), the last king of the rpd dynasty, declared, in the privilegium granted by him to the community of Posonium (Bratislava), that the Jews in that city should enjoy all the liberties of citizens. For centuries afterward Jews were forbidden to live at Bsing. The order proved ineffective, however; and the employment of Jewish customs officials was continued. The university is still operating, celebrating its 130th anniversary on October 4, 2007. Jews were also to be found in the volunteer corps, and among the honvd and landsturm; and they constituted one-third of the volunteer division of Pest that marched along the Drava against the Croatians, being blessed by Rabbi Schwab on June 22, 1848. "There is no doubt that this is probably the greatest and most horrible crime ever committed in the whole history of the world", By July 9, 1944, 437,402 Jews had been deported, according to Reich plenipotentiary in Hungary Edmund Veesenmayer's official German reports. This minority had managed to achieve great commercial success, and Jews were disproportionately represented in the professions, relative to their numbers. "[e] According to Yehuda Bauer, when the deportations to Auschwitz began in May 1944, the Zionist youth movements organized smuggling of Hungarian Jews into Romania. When Andrew needed money in 1226, he farmed the royal revenues to Jews, which gave ground for much complaint. The pope (Pope Honorius III) thereupon excommunicated him, until, in 1233, he promised the papal ambassadors on oath that he would enforce the decrees of the Golden Bull directed against the Jews and the Saracens (by this time, the papacy had changed, and the Pope was now Pope Gregory IX; he would cause both peoples to be distinguished from Christians by means of badges; and would forbid both Jews and Saracens to buy or to keep Christian slaves. 57 hectares" class, 3.2% to the "small (<100 hold) landholder" class, 34.4% to the "working", i.e. [citation needed] The sufferings endured during the brief revolution, and their exploitation by ultra-nationalist movements, helped generate stronger suspicions among non-Jewish Hungarians, and undergirded pre-existing anti-Semitic views. Zpolya, however, did not ratify these laws; and the Diet held at Pressburg in December 1526, at which Ferdinand of Habsburg was chosen king (15261564), annulled all the decrees of that of Szkesfehrvr, including Zpolya's election as king. This might be happening in Galicia to Polish Jews, but this can't happen in our very cultivated Hungarian state. Eurpa press, Gabor Kadar, Zoltan Vagi "Self-Financing Genocide: The Gold Train The Becher Case The Wealth of Jews, Hungary" (Central European University Press, 2004), Gbor Kdr Zoltn Vgi: Magyarok Auschwitzban. [25], During the early years Christian teachers were to be employed in the Jewish schools, but they were to have nothing to do with the religious affairs of such institutions. [96] Still, although the Diet appointed on February 7, 1791, a commission to study the question, the amelioration of the condition of the Hungarian Jews was not effected till half a century later, under Ferdinand V (r. 18351848), during the session of the Diet of 18391840. But the Jews living in the country, on the estates of their landlords, were generally left alone. Around 4,000 Hungarian Jews were smuggled into Romania, including the smugglers and those who paid them on the border.

Bitter words against the Jews were also heard in the Diet. During the Revolution of 1848 they displayed their patriotism, even though attacked by the populace in several places at the beginning of the uprising. At the time, the Jewish natural growth rate was higher than the Christian (although the difference had been narrowing), but so was the emigration rate, mainly to the United States. [9], The 2011 Hungary census data had 10,965 people (0.11%) who self-identified as religious Jews, of whom 10,553 (96.2%) declared themselves as ethnic Hungarian. These cookies do not store any personal information. Welcome to the JewishGen Hungary Database. The sultan himself entered Buda on September 11; and on September 22 he decreed that all the Jews seized at Buda, Esztergom, and elsewhere, more than 2,000 in number, should be distributed among the cities of the Ottoman Empire. [20], After the restoration of peace the Jews were expelled from many cities that feared their competition; thus Esztergom expelled them in 1712, on the ground that the city which had given birth to St. Stephen must not be desecrated by them. According to records, 10,530 people left Judaism, and 2,244 converted to Judaism between 1896 and 1917. 1780: Brny, Csonka, Horpcs, Jnap, Kohnyi, Kossuth, Kosztolnyi, Lengyel, Lrincz, Lukcs, Szarvas, Szab, Varga. [47] Overall, 31.1% of the Jewish population lived in villages and towns with less than 20 thousand inhabitants. Under the milder communist regime of Jnos Kdr (ruled 19571988) leftist Jewish intelligentsia remained an important and vocal part of Hungarian art and sciences. The history of the Jews in Hungary dates back to at least the Kingdom of Hungary, with some records even predating the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin in 895 CE by over 600 years. Filderman and Zissu obtained similar assurances in Bucharest, despite heavy German pressure.". The actions were dependent on local conditions. The vast majority of those deported were massacred in Kameniec-Podolsk (Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre) at the end of August. [20], The lot of the Jews was not improved under the reign of Leopold's son, Charles III (17111740). During the siege of Vienna, in 1683, the Jews that had returned to that city were again maltreated. Several counties instructed their representatives not to vote for the emancipation of the Jews until they desisted from practising the externals of their religion. Nevertheless, Mikls Kllay, Prime Minister from March 9, 1942, and Regent Horthy resisted German pressure and refused to allow the deportation of Hungarian Jews to the German extermination camps in occupied Poland.

In 1910, 60.96% of merchants,[39] 58.11% of the book printers, 41.75% of the innkeepers, 24.42% of the bakers, 24.07% of the butchers, 21.04% of the tailors, and 8.90% of the shoemakers of Hungary were Jewish. This "anomalous" situation lasted until March 19, 1944, when German troops occupied Hungary and forced Horthy to oust Kllay. [25], The Jews also had to pay heavier bridge-and ferry-tolls than the Christians; at Nagyszombat (Trnava) they had to pay three times the ordinary sum, namely, for the driver, for the vehicle, and for the animal drawing the same; and in three villages belonging to the same district they had to pay toll, although there was no toll-gate. It has been estimated that one third of the murdered victims at Auschwitz were Hungarian. In addition, a lot of Christians of Jewish ancestry did not answer this question truthfully. wage-earning employee class, while 59.3% belonged to the self-employed or salary-earning middle class.[42]. Emperor Franz Joseph remitted the war-tax (September 20, 1850), but ordered that the Jews of Hungary without distinction should contribute toward a Jewish school fund of 1,000,000 gulden; they raised this sum within a few years. He also restricted the Jews to cities with episcopal sees probably to have them under the continuous supervision of the Church. Despite the decline, in 2010 Hungary had the largest Jewish population in Eastern Europe outside the former Soviet Union. [citation needed], In March 1919, Communist and Social Democrat members of a coalition government ousted Karolyi; soon after (March 21), the Communists were to take power as their Social Democrat colleagues were willing neither to accept nor to refuse the Vix Note to cede a significant part of the Great Plains to Romania and the communists took control of Hungary's governing institutions. [h] One hundred and forty-seven trains were sent to Auschwitz, where most of the deportees were murdered on arrival. They were in constant conflict with the citizens. [23], The government could not, however, check the large immigration; for although strict laws were drafted in 1727, they could not be enforced owing to the good-will of the magnates toward the Jews. Various communities founded Hungarian reading-circles; and the Hungarian dress and language were more and more adopted. [27], The Jews of Hungary handed a petition, in which they boldly presented their claims to equality with other citizens, to King Leopold II (17901792) at Vienna on November 29, 1790. (Notable was Bishop ron Mrton's sermon in Kolozsvr on May 18). Many died as a result of harsh conditions on the Eastern Front and cruel treatment by their Hungarian sergeants and officers. This gives a 29.6 percent survival rate. [citation needed], Jews in Hungary were long prevented from owning land, which resulted in many going into business. Starting in 1938, Hungary under Mikls Horthy passed a series of anti-Jewish measures in emulation of Germany's Nuremberg Laws. [citation needed], The following is from another source, a statistical summary written in the beginning of 1944 and referring to the 1941 census data:[73], The question about Jewish grandparents was added late to the questionnaires at the census of 1941, when some of the sheets had already been printed. Mauthausen (Concentration camp) --Registers. [25], Joseph II (17801790), son and successor of Maria Theresa, showed immediately on his accession that he intended to alleviate the condition of the Jews, communicating this intention to the Hungarian chancellor, Count Franz Esterhzy as early as May 13, 1781. Transport ([1944?] Meanwhile, they did not forget to take steps to obtain their rights as citizens.

Indeed, commentators opined in 1911 that Hungary had "absorbed" their Jews and "it has come to pass that there is no anti-Semitism in Budapest, although the Hebrew element is proportionately much larger (21% as compared to 9%) than it is in Vienna, the Mecca of the Jew-baiter"[38] At that time Karl Lueger, mayor of Vienna referred to the capital as Judapest, alluding to the high proportion of Jews. [citation needed], The Jews of Hungary were fairly well integrated into Hungarian society by the time of the First World War. [citation needed], After the fall of communism, Hungary had two prime ministers of Jewish origin, Jzsef Antall (19901993) and Gyula Horn (19941998)[116], In April 1997, the Hungarian parliament passed a Jewish compensation act that returns property stolen from Jewish victims during the Nazi and Communist eras. "After the failed attempt on Hitler's life, the Germans backed off from pressing Horthy's regime to continue further, large-scale deportations, although some smaller groups continued to be deported by train. Very few members of the Catholic or Protestant clergy raised their voices against sending the Jews to their death. [20], This advice soon bore fruit and was in part acted upon. by the JewishGen Hungarian Special Interest Group They spoke Hungarian, even the Orthodox among them, and identified strongly with the cause of Hungarian nationalism, often to the point of chauvanism. Nothing is known concerning the Jews during the period of the grand princes, except that they lived in the country and engaged in commerce there. From this session onward, the press and general assemblies pushed for religious reform. A memo setting out policy for the BBC Hungarian Service in 1942 states: 'We shouldn't mention the Jews at all. In 1251 a privilegium was granted by Bla to his Jewish subjects which was essentially the same as that granted by Duke Frederick II the Quarrelsome to the Austrian Jews in 1244, but which Bla modified to suit the conditions of Hungary. Most of them lost their right to vote as well: before the second Jewish law, about 31% of the Jewish population of Borsod county (Miskolc excluded), 2496 people had this right. This decree, restricting the natural increase of the Jews, materially affected the Jewish communities of Hungary. [23], In 1735, another census of the Jews of the country was taken with the view of reducing their numbers. "[68], Unfortunately for Jews they had also become, by a quirk of history, the most visible minority remaining in Hungary (besides ethnic Germans and Gypsies); the other large "non-Hungarian" populations (including Slovaks, Slovenes, Croats, and Romanians, among others) had been abruptly excised from the Hungarian population by the territorial losses at Trianon. Soviet troops liberated the big Budapest ghetto on January 18, 1945. Some family names were recorded for Jewish families: Emperor Joseph II believed that Germanization could facilitate the centralization of his empire. records state maps galicia przemyl polish poland From this number, 725,000 (or 4.94%) were Jewish in accordance with Jewish religious law (4.30% in pre-1938 Hungary, 7.15% in the territories annexed from Czechoslovakia and Romania in 19381940 and 1.38% in the territories annexed from Yugoslavia in 1941). [48], The following table shows the number of people who declared to be Israelite (Jewish) at the censuses inside the post-WWI territory of Hungary. At the next elections, less than a month after this new anti-Jewish legislation, only 38 privileged Jews could vote. Bla also entrusted the Jews with the mint; and Hebrew coins of this period are still found in Hungary. Jews were on both sides of the 1956 uprising. Scientists from the University of Vienna unearth the earliest evidence of Jewish inhabitants in Austria,", "From the second half of the 19th century the surviving Szekler Sabbatarians intermarried with Jews", In addition, 35.6% of the people of Budapest were atheists, non-religious or did not want to answer the question about their religion, "In addition, 56.8% of the people of Budapest were atheists, non-religious or did not want to answer the question about their religion", "Population by denomination, 2001 census", "Magyar Statisztikai Szemle JanMarch 1944", "Could the BBC have done more to help Hungarian Jews? [j] Horthy finally dismissed Prime Minister Sztjay on August 29, the same day the Slovak National uprising against the Nazis started. World War, 1939-1945 --Concentration camps --Austria --Mauthausen --Registers. [105], An estimated 119,000 Jewish people were liberated in Budapest (25,000 in the small "international" ghetto, 69,000 in the big ghetto, and 25,000 hiding with false papers) and 20,000 forced laborers in the countryside. [13], The year 1240 was the closing one of the fifth millennium of the Jewish era. The Jews organized schools in various places, at Pressburg (Bratislava), buda, Vgjhely (Nov Mesto nad Vhom), and Nagyvrad (Oradea).

The Hungarian government was solely in charge of the Jews' transportation up to the northern border. [25], The toleration-tax had hardly been instituted when Michael Hirsch petitioned the government to be appointed primate of the Hungarian Jews to be able to settle difficulties that might arise among them, and to collect the tax. Pest was more Jewish than Buda. Compounding this virtual obscenity, the government of Viktor Orbn sought in late 1998 to ease the collective conscience of the nation by offering to compensate survivors by paying approximately $150 for each member of their particular immediate families, assuming that they can prove that their loved ones were in fact victims of the Holocaust. [citation needed], Although from 1943, the BBC Polish Service broadcast about the exterminations, the BBC Hungarian Service did not discuss the Jews. An estimated 20% of the Hungarian refugees entering Canada in 1957 were Jewish. The Jews with the strongest Jewish identities were typically the ones who emigrated. Haynau punished the communities of Kecskemt, Nagykrs, Cegld, Albertirsa, Szeged, and Szabadka (now Subotica, Serbia) with equal severity. The Jews, however, continued to settle near these towns; they displayed their wares at the fairs; and, with the permission of the court, they even erected a foundry at Sg (Sasinkovo). The subjects to be taught in the Jewish schools were to be the same as those taught in the national schools; the same text-books were to be used in all the elementary schools; and everything that might offend the religious sentiment of non-conformists was to be omitted. "Jews in Hungary were culturally Hungarian. [15] Hungarian tribes settled the territory 650 years later. Moreover, members of the upper class, Jews and Christians alike, were expelled from the cities to the provinces for 612 months in the early 1950s. These losses provoked deep anger and hostility in the remaining Hungarian population. [31], The Jews' civic liberty lasted for just two weeks. An important office created by Louis was that of "judge of all the Jews living in Hungary," who was chosen from among the dignitaries of the country, the palatines, and treasurers, and had a deputy to aid him. 250,000 Hungarian Jews lost their income. [103] The big Budapest ghetto was set up and walled in the Erzsbetvros part of Budapest on November 29. In 1920, 60 percent of Hungarian doctors, 51 percent of lawyers, 39 percent of all privately employed engineers and chemists, 34 percent of editors and journalists, and 29 percent of musicians identified themselves as Jews by religion. In consequence of the petition of the Jews of Pest, the mover of which was Philip Jacobovics, superintendent of the Jewish hospital, the general assembly of the county of Pest drafted instructions for the delegates on June 10, 1839, to the effect that if the Jews would be willing to adopt the Magyar language they should be given equal rights with other Hungarian citizens.
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