The Bundahishn, an encyclopaediaic collection of Zoroastrian cosmogony and cosmology written in Book Pahlavi,[18] which was finished in the 11th or 12th century CE, states that the Great Fires had existed since creation and had been brought forth on the back of the ox Srishok to propagate the faith, dispel doubt, and protect all humankind. Following the rise of the Sassanid dynasty, the shrines to the Yazatas continued to exist, but with the statues by law either abandoned or replaced by fire altars. [23] On entry one comes into a large space or hall where congregation (also non-religious) or special ceremonies may take place. She holds a senior management position with a global automotive supplier and is a senior member of the American Society for Quality. A substantial part of the Indo-Iranian Journal is reserved for reviews of new research. This ash, it is said, served as the bed for the fire today at Udvada.[21]. Fire is also prominent in Zoroastrian eschatologywhen all souls will be submitted to fire and molten metal to purify them of wickedness. Enter the e-mail address associated with the account. Consecration to this rank relieves him of the necessity of purification after the various incidents of life that a lesser priest must expiate. There are different types of fire temples, but their basis and architectural plan of the building are similar to each other. Ordinary priests have the title of mobad, and are able to conduct the congregational worship and such occasional functions as marriages. Learn Religions, Aug. 27, 2020, Each of the 16 fires is then subject to a purification ritual before it joins the others. The need for purity is particularly evident in funerary rituals. Located in West Azerbaijan Province, about 45 km northeast ofTakab,Azar Goshnasbis one of the largest and most famous fire temples in the Iranian plateau. The remains of a fire-altar, most likely constructed during the proselytizing campaign of Yazdegerd II (r. 438457) against the Christian Armenians, have been found directly beneath the main altar of the Echmiadzin Cathedral, the Mother See of the Armenian Apostolic Church.[17]. Apart from relatively minor fire temples, three were said to derive directly from Ahura Mazda, thus making them the most important in Zoroastrian tradition. According to their holy book called Avesta, Zoroastrians consider the four elements of air, earth, water and fire as purifying and valuable elements, and they held them in high esteem. Around them, sometimes there were other spaces that were used as schools, observatories and hospitals. Famous French archaeologist Andre Godard believes that when Zoroastrianism entered Iran, there used to be religions such as Mazdaism and their fire temples existed in all cities and most scholars agree with this hypothesis. Connected to this anteroom, or enclosed within it, but not visible from the hall, is the innermost sanctum (in Zoroastrian terminology, the atashgah, literally 'place of the fire'[2] in which the actual fire-altar stands). option. The legends of the Great Fires are probably of antiquity (see also Denkard citation, below), for by the 3rd century CE, miracles were said to happen at the sites, and the fires were popularly associated with other legends such as those of the folktale heroes Fereydun, Jamshid and Rustam. Request Permissions, Read Online (Free) relies on page scans, which are not currently available to screen readers. Stone is the main building material used in fire temples. Required fields are marked *. [6][7] Of these only 9 (1 in Iran and 8 in India) are the main temples known as atash behrams and the remaining are the smaller temples known as agiarys. There was a custom in India that Zoroastrian women were not allowed to enter the Fire Temple and the Tower of Silence if they married a non-Zoroastrian person. They wrap the kusti around the outside of a sudreh, a long, clean, white cotton shirt. Cremation can also be problematic, because a body will contaminate the purity of fire. Under threat of war (probably in 1465), the fire was moved to the Bahrot Caves 20km south of Sanjan, where it stayed for 12 years. We offer a wide range of travel service to those who wish to travel to Iran: Iran visa, Iran tours, accommodation in Iran, Flights, train, Bus, Travel insurance, Guides, Driver guides, etc. Established 1823. A Reformer person rose up from among the people and introduced new beliefs and thoughts. While fire purifies, even consecrated, holy fires are not immune to contamination, and Zoroastrian priests take many precautions against such an action occurring. In order for the parts that were made of bricks to have high strength, baked bricks were used on the outside and raw bricks were used on the inside of the building. They used stone or marble to build the columns of the fire temple and stone or wood for the roof according to the available materials. In India and in Indian-Zoroastrian communities overseas, non-Zoroastrians are strictly prohibited from entering any space from which one could see the fire(s). Sassanid coins of the 3rd-4th century CE likewise reveal a fire in a vase-like container identical in design to the present-day afrinagans. Thirty-two priests are required for the consecration ceremony, which can take up to a year to complete. The Journal welcomes epigraphical studies as well as general contributions to the understanding of the (pre-modern) history and culture of South Asia. In addition, entry into any part of the facility is sometimes reserved for Zoroastrians only. +98 921 497 4273 A temple at which a Yasna service (the principal Zoroastrian act of worship that accompanies the recitation of the Yasna liturgy) may be celebrated will always have, attached to it or on the grounds, at least a well or a stream or other source of 'natural' water. Zoroastrians recognize all three. (.mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}281N 531E / 28.017N 53.017E / 28.017; 53.017 (Darmesteter's projection of the location of the Temple of the Farnbag fire)), According to Parsi legend, when (over a thousand years ago) one group of refugees from (greater) Khorasan landed in Western Gujarat, they had the ash of such a fire with them. We'll e-mail a link to reset your password. Legend says that some took fire with them and it most probably served as a reminder of their faith in an increasingly persecuted community since fire originating from a temple was not a tenet of the religious practice. ", Although "in the eyes of [contemporary] Iranian Zoroastrian priests, the three fires were not 'really existing' temple fires and rather belonged to the mythological realm",[19] several attempts have been made to identify the locations of the Great Fires. Call us Greek historians of the Parthian period reported the use of a metal vase-like urn to transport fire. All natural creations of Ahura Mazda are believed to be pure. It was then moved to Udvada where it burns today. The name of this ancient fire temple is mentioned in Shahnameh book. The priesthood is trigradal. Some fire temples have only a quadrangular section as described, but some of the more important types, such as the Char Qapi fire temple in Qasr-e Shirin, also hadall around corridors and enclosed spaceswhich have collapsed over time, however, traces of it can be seen in some parts. It represents luminosity. The fire temple of Atashgah is adjacent to the MinarJonban and is located on a high rocky hill. Your email address will not be published. +98 930 439 1527. Access supplemental materials and multimedia. fire festival beltane celtic ritual integration cultural spirit druids divine beltaine disintegration occult witchcraft wicca fantasy perfect light flickr The characteristic feature of the Sassanid fire temple was its domed sanctuary where the fire-altar stood. Regardless of how old we are, we never stop learning. The double dome has vents to allow the smoke to escape, but the vents of the outer dome are offset from those of the inner, so preventing debris or rain from entering the inner sanctum. There is no allusion to a temple of fire in the Avesta proper, nor is there any Old Persian language word for one. The Indo-Iranian Journal (IIJ), founded in 1957, is a peer-reviewed journal that focuses on the ancient and medieval languages and cultures of South Asia and of pre-Islamic Iran. A lay person may tend the fire when no services are in progress. Dadiseth Atash Behram in Mumbai, India. It publishes specialized research on ancient Iranian religion and the Indian religions, such as the Veda, Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism (including Tibetan). Another issue is the prohibition of sunlight on fire, and for this reason, Zoroastrians build fire temples in such a way that the fire is in a dark place on a fireplace.

According to the Qissa-i Sanjan, 'Story of Sanjan', the only existing account of the early years of Zoroastrian refugees in India and composed at least six centuries after their arrival, the immigrants established a Atash-Warharan, 'victorious fire' (see Warharan for etymology) at Sanjan. BRILL is renowned for its publications in the following subject areas; Asian Studies, Ancient Near East & Egypt, Biblical Studies & Religious Studies, Classical Studies, Medieval & Early Modern Studies, Middle East & Islamic Studies. [20] If this identification is correct, the temple of the Farnbag fire then lay 10 miles southwest of Juwun, midway between Jahrom and Lar. Only priests attached to a fire temple may enter the innermost sanctum itself, which is closed on at least one side and has a double domed roof. vahini hospital sss To Zoroastrians, God is known as Ahura Mazda, which means wise lord. Zoroastrians recognize a constant struggle between good, represented by Ahura Mazda, and evil, represented by Gods opposite, known as Ahriman. That the temple once stood in Khwarezm is also supported by the Greater (Iranian) Bundahishn and by the texts of Zadsparam (11.9). In the early 20th century, A. V. Jackson identified the remains at Takht-i-Suleiman, midway between Urumieh and Hamadan, as the temple of Adur Gushnasp. For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions Instead, fire represents God. Fire Temple attendance is particularly high during seasonal celebrations (Gahambars), and especially for the New Year (Noruz). All traditional Zoroastrian temples, also know as agiaries or "places of fire," include a holy fire to represent the goodness and purity toward which all should strive. if you are planning to travel to Iran, join our experienced team to visit the most popular Iranian destinations and see ancient Persia as one of the most mysterious and amazing lands of the world. But we still have beautiful fire temples in Iran that can be visited. There are no lights other than that of the fire itself in the inner sanctum. Zoroaster placed less emphasis on ritual worship, instead focusing on the central ethics of 'Good Words, Good Thoughts and Good Deeds'. It requires a gathering of hearth fire from representatives of the four professional groups (that reflect feudal estates): from a hearth fire of the asronih (the priesthood), the (r)atheshtarih (soldiers and civil servants), the vastaryoshih (farmers and herdsmen) and the hutokshih (artisans and laborers). Some of the one-piece stones used in the construction of fire temples sometimes reached up to seven meters. The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. Veneration of the greater fires is addressed only to the fire itself that is, following the consecration of such a fire, only the Atash Nyashes, the litany to the fire in Younger Avestan, is ever recited before it. In some cases they even built mosques over the ruins of the Zoroastrian fire temples, and the few that were not destroyed experienced serious damage over time and under the influence of natural factors. Once it is properly consecrated, a temple fire should never be allowed to go out, although it can be transported to another location if necessary. Lamps often fueled by gheeanother purifying substance are also lit as part of the navjote initiation ceremony. Each of the three is also said to have mirrored social and feudal divisions: "The fire which is Farnbag has made its place among the priests; the fire which is Gshnasp has made its place among the warriors; the fire which is Brzn-Mitr has made its place among agriculturists" (Denkard, 6.293). Many Zoroastrian temples, particularly those in India, do not even allow non-Zoroastrians, or juddins, inside their boundaries. In the Zoroastrian fire temples, fire was not worshiped at all, but because of its dynamism, warmth, protection and the nature of transformation, it is mentioned as aspects of divine power. Functionally, the fire temples are built to serve the fire within them, and the fire temples are classified (and named) according to the grade of fire housed within them.

This fire temple was not always at Udvada. Ahura Mazda is the light of wisdom that pushes back the darkness of chaos. [4] For, one "who sacrifices unto fire with fuel in his hand , is given happiness".[5]. zoroastrianism Its followers can choose whether they wish to pray and how. Among the fire temples that were changed to mosques, we can mention the Isfahan Jame mosque and Ardestan mosque. There are no indigenous sources older than the 19th century that describe an Iranian fire temple (the 9th century theologian Manushchir observed that they had a standard floor plan, but what this might have been is unknown), and it is possible that the temples there today have features that are originally of Indian origin. Banaji Atash Behram in Mumbai, India. The Indian Zoroastrians do however export these and other utensils to their co-religionists the world over. First evident in the 9th century BCE, the Zoroastrian rituals of fire are contemporary with that of Zoroastrianism itself. [15] This sanctuary always had a square ground plan with a pillar in each corner that then supported the dome (the gombad). This building has a large and round fireplace, in which several vents are installed. Established 1845. This page has been archived and is no longer updated. They may engage in a purification ritual, such as the washing of the hands, then untie and then retie it while reciting prayers. If a corpse is to be buried, the grave must be lined to protect the ground.

1983 Brill Darmesteter's projection of the location of the Temple of the Farnbag fire, "Parsis go all out to celebrate milestone in Chennai", "8: East of the Caspian Sea: the Sacae and the Massagetae", Fire temple or Agiary or Atashkadeh or Atashgah or Dar-e Mehr,, Articles with incomplete citations from September 2018, Articles containing Persian-language text, Infobox religious building with unknown affiliation, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2021, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0. It involves the gathering of 16 different "kinds of fire", that is, fires gathered from 16 different sources, including lightning, fire from a cremation pyre, fire from trades where a furnace is operated, and fires from the hearths as is also the case for the Atash Adaran. The term darb-e mehr is also common in India, albeit with a slightly different meaning. Communal worship is usually centred around seasonal festivals (of which the Zoroastrians have many), but there are other opportunities for worshipers to gather, such as the Navjote, the initiation ceremony where a child is accepted into the Zoroastrian fellowship. The priests of these respective "Royal Fires" are said to have competed with each other to draw pilgrims by promoting the legends and miracles that were purported to have occurred at their respective sites. 2020 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Media, All Rights Reserved. That the rituals of fire was a doctrinal modification and absent from early Zoroastrianism is also evident in the later Atash Nyash. Among present-day Iranian Zoroastrians, the term darb-e mehr includes the entire ritual precinct. Until the 17th century the fire (now) at Udvada was the only continuously burning one on the Indian subcontinent. Etymological theories see a derivation from mithryana (so Meillet) or *mithradana (Gershevitch) or mithraion (Wilcken). By the way, the oldest remaining and documented fire temples of Iran were established during the Parthian period (around 200 BC) and most fire temples were established under the Sassanian rule (224-651 AD). [9] Although the "burning of fire" was a key element in Zoroastrian worship, the burning of "eternal" fire, as well as the presence of "light" in worship, was also a key element in many other religions. There are a variety of symbols through which the message of purity is communicated, primarily: Fire is by far the most central and often used symbol of purity. document.getElementById( "ak_js_1" ).setAttribute( "value", ( new Date() ).getTime() ); IRANSAFAR TOURS is an Iranian tour operator and travel agency with 25 years of experience with tourism in Iran. The divine spark, an outflow of the divinity of God that is believed to exist in all living creations, can also be seen in the symbol of fire. BRILL, founded in 1683, is a publishing house with a strong international focus. This is largely due to the financial support of such places by one Arbab Rustam Guiv, who preferred the dialectal Iranian form. This reflects an outlook on saliva that is similar to Hindu beliefs, which shares some historical origins with Zoroastrianism, where saliva is never allowed to touch eating utensils due to its unclean properties. While this is not a doctrinal requirement (that is, it is not an injunction specified in the Avesta or in the so-called Pahlavi texts), it has nonetheless developed as a tradition. Based on the Word Net lexical database for the English Language. These were the "Great Fires" or "Royal Fires" of Adur Burzen-Mihr, Adur Farnbag, and Adur Gushnasp. Even when such people follow the standard procedures for remaining pure, their presence is considered too spiritually corrupting to be allowed entrance into a fire temple. Of course, they also used bricks and mud in places that were difficult to get to. Fire is venerated as a great purifying agent and as a symbol of Ahura Mazdas power, but it is in no way worshiped or thought to be Ahura Mazda himself. A fire temple, Agiary, Atashkadeh (Persian: ), Atashgah () or Dar-e Mehr ( ) is the place of worship for the followers of Zoroastrianism, the ancient religion of Iran (Persia). Anjuman Atash Behram in Mumbai, India. In one corner hangs a bell, which is rung five times a day at the boi literally, '[good] scent'[24] ceremony, which marks the beginning of each gah, or 'watch'. BBC 2014 The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. It publishes articles on Indo-Iranian languages (linguistics and literatures), such as Sanskrit, Avestan, Middle Iranian and Middle & New Indo-Aryan. The term is not necessarily a consecrated fire, and the term is also applied to the hearth fire, or to the oil lamp found in many Zoroastrian homes. The fire temples were built in such a way that it had a dome and a corridor around it. Bernard Picart (16731733). The older terms have the advantage that they are readily understood even by non-Zoroastrian Iranians. zoroastrianism zoroastrians In ancient Iran, the head of the family always kept the fire burning, so keeping the fire lit became a tradition. But gradually the number of Zoroastrians in the country decreased and some conservative ones immigrated to India. Although there are numerous eternally burning Zoroastrian fires today, with the exception of the 'Fire of Warharan', none of them are more than 250 years old. In the fire temples of Iran, the fire was in a completely closed space, but in India, Zoroastrians can only worship fire from behind lattice walls. To access this article, please, Access everything in the JPASS collection, Download up to 10 article PDFs to save and keep, Download up to 120 article PDFs to save and keep. Other texts observe that the Great Fires were also vehicles of propaganda and symbols of imperial sovereignty. It is significantly more common than the older atashkada, a Classical Persian language term that together with its middle Persian predecessors ( tax-kadag, -man and -xanag) literally means 'house of fire'. Archaeological remains and literary evidence from Zend commentaries on the Avesta suggest that the sanctuary was surrounded by a passageway on all four sides. However, according to the Greater Bundahishn, it was moved "upon the shining mountain of Kavarvand in the Kar district" (the rest of the passage is identical to the Indian edition). As of 2021[update], there were 167 fire temples in the world, of which 45 were in Mumbai, 105 in the rest of India, and 17 in other countries. We've updated our Privacy Policy, which will go in to effect on September 1, 2022. Check out using a credit card or bank account with. Since death brings decay, which is contamination, corpses cannot touch the ground. This then precludes the use of temple hall for public (also secular) functions. Off to the side of this (or sometimes a floor level up or down) the devotee enters an anteroom smaller than the hall he/she has just passed through. Publications are increasingly becoming available in electronic format (CD-ROM and/or online editions).BRILL is proud to work with a broad range of scholars and authors and to serve its many customers throughout the world. The chamber containing the holy fire, known as the Dar-I-Mihr or "porch of Mithra," is generally positioned so that those outside the temple cannot even view it. Keeping the flames lit became a divine symbol for worship in Iranian fire temples. By clicking Accept All Cookies, you agree to the storing of cookies on your device to enhance site navigation, analyze site usage, and assist in our marketing efforts. In the same way, Catholics do not worship holy water, although they recognize that it has spiritual properties, and Christians, in general, do not worship the cross, although the symbol is widely respected and dearly held as representative of Christ's sacrifice. The religion of most Iranians was Zoroastrianism before the advent of Islam. This fire temple is located in the west of Isfahan on the Isfahan-Najafabad road.

Clean, white "ash for the purification ceremonies [is] regarded as the basis of ritual life", which "are essentially the rites proper to the tending of a domestic fire, for the temple [fire] is that of the hearth fire raised to a new solemnity". "Purity and Fire in Zoroastrianism." Its materials include raw clay bricks, mud, pebbles and reeds of Zayandehrud coast. Since fire is a sacred element for the Zoroastrians, its maintenance and care required special conditions. It appears at approximately the same time as the shrine cult and is roughly contemporaneous with the introduction of Atar as a divinity.

There are three grades of fires, the Atash Dadgah, Atash Adaran, and Atash Behram. BRILL's mainly English language publications include book series, individual monographs and encyclopaedias as well as journals. Archaeologists have not agreed and it can not be estimated. Some of these domes were made of brick and a row of stone, and their remains still exist today. In the past, there were many magnificent palaces around this fire temple. Throughout its existence the company has been honored with many awards which recognise BRILL's contribution to science, publishing and international trade. There is disagreement about the date of the advent of Zarathustra, but still the time of birth is attributed to 660 BC and the beginning of his prophet hood to 630 BC. Zoroastrians are sometimes mistakenly believed to worship fire. The architecture of a fire temple consists of a quadrangular building with four arched gates on all four sides. Only traces of the foundation and ground-plan survive and have been tentatively dated to the 3rd or 4th century BCE. In present-day Zoroastrian tradition, the offering is never made directly, but placed in the care of the celebrant priest who, wearing a cloth mask over the nostrils and mouth to prevent pollution from the breath, will then using a pair of silver tongs place the offering in the fire. The outer faade of a Zoroastrian fire temple is almost always intentionally nondescript and free of embellishment. When tending to the fire, a cloth known as a padan is worn over the mouth and nose so that breath and saliva do not pollute the fire. While most Zoroastrians now recognize the necessity of cremation, the preferred method has long been the sky burial, through which a body is placed into something called a tower of silence, or dakhma, where it can then be cleansed by the sun, the wind, vultures and birds of prey. [1][2][3] In the Zoroastrian religion, fire (see atar), together with clean water (see aban), are agents of ritual purity. Beyer, Catherine. The temple is an even later development: from Herodotus it is known that in the mid-5th century BCE the Zoroastrians worshipped to the open sky, ascending mounds to light their fires. Zoroastrians believe that the elements are pure and that fire represents God's light or wisdom. In recent years, the term dar-be mehr has come to refer to a secondary sacred fire (the dadgah) for daily ritual use that is present at the more prestigious fire temples. The Atash Dadgah is the lowest grade of sacred fire, and can be consecrated within the course of a few hours by two priests, who alternatingly recite the 72 verses of the Yasna liturgy. Lebanon Valley College: Death, Dying & Beyond -- Zoroastrianism, The Theosophical Society in America: Zoroastrianism -- History, Beliefs, and Practices, University of Illinois, School of Chemical Sciences: Zoroaster and the Theory of the Four Elements. The location of the Mithra fire, i.e. The Misconception of Zoroastrians as Fire Worshipers. Luminous things such as the sun, stars and fire signify warmth and energy, which are also attributes of God. Fire to a Zoroastrian might be comparable to a crucifix for a Catholic -- it is a visual symbol of a God that cannot actually be seen. Only priests are allowed to take care of the fire and ordinary people do not have the right to enter the fire.

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